What is International Development?
International development is a holistic and multi-disciplinary concept most commonly used in the context of developing and improving human livelihoods. It therefore encompasses governance, healthcare, education, disaster preparedness, infrastructure, economics, human rights, environment and issues associated with these. International development seeks to implement long-term solutions to human livelihood issues by helping developing countries create the necessary capacity needed to provide such sustainable solutions to their problems.
During recent decades International Development has shifted away from modernisation and structural adjustment programs to:
- Poverty reduction - direct budget support for social welfare programs that create macroeconomic stability leading to an increase in economic growth
- Dignity - modern poverty reduction and development programmes often have as a central theme "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights."
- Participation - intended beneficiaries of development projects and programmes are themselves involved in the planning and execution phases, empowering the recipients of development projects to influence and manage their own development - thereby removing any culture of dependency.
- Appropriate - development project or programme is of the correct scale and technical level, is culturally and socially suitable for its beneficiaries, is acceptable to its recipients and owners, economically affordable and sustainable
- Sustainable - takes account of economic, social and environmental factors, is not dependent on finite resources and will have the necessary support from the community, government and other stakeholders to carry on indefinitely.
- Capacity building - increase the ability of the recipients to continue their future development without external support.
The Millennium Development Goals
During the UN Millennium Summit in September 2000 the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to be achieved by 2015 were drawn from the actions and targets contained in the Millennium Declaration that was adopted by 189 nations-and signed by 147 heads of state and governments. Member states of the United Nations agreed to respond to the world's main development challenges:
Millennium Development Goals
|Goal 1:||Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger|
|Goal 2:||Achieve universal primary education|
|Goal 3:||Promote gender equality and empower women|
|Goal 4:||Reduce child mortality|
|Goal 5:||Improve maternal health|
|Goal 6:||Combat HIV/Aids, malaria and other diseases|
|Goal 7:||Ensure environmental sustainability|
|Goal 8:||Develop a Global Partnership for Development|